Mrs. Brant

Cherry Tree Elementary

Carmel Clay Schools

13989 Hazel Dell Parkway (Map It!)

Carmel, IN 46033

(317) 846-3086 ext. 1215

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Thank you for visiting the website for the Cherry Tree Elementary Speech Therapy Program.

What are Speech and Language Disorders?

What is a speech disorder?

A speech disorder is a problem with fluency, voice, and/or how a person says speech sounds.

  • Fluency disorder - an interruption in the flow or rhythm of speech characterized by hesitations, repetitions, or prolongations of sounds, syllables, words, or phrases.
  • Articulation disorder - difficulties with the way sounds are formed and strung together, usually characterized by substituting one sound for another (wabbit for rabbit), omitting a sound (han for hand), and distorting a sound (ship for sip).
  • Voice disorder - characterized by inappropriate pitch (too high, too low, never changing, or interrupted by breaks); quality (harsh, hoarse, breathy, or nasal); loudness, resonance, and duration.

What is a language disorder?

A language disorder is a problem with understanding and/or using spoken, written, and/or other symbol systems (e.g., gestures, sign language). The disorder may involve 1) the form of language (phonology, morphology, syntax), 2) the content of the language (semantics), and/or the function of language in communication (pragmatics) in any combination.

1. Form of Language

  • Phonology is the sound system of a language and the rules about how sounds are combined.
  • Morphology is the structure of words and how word forms are constructed.
  • Syntax is the order and combination of words to form sentences.

2. Content of Language

  • Semantics is related to the meanings of words and sentences.

3. Function of Language

  • Pragmatics is the combination of language components (phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics) in functional and socially appropriate ways.

Language disorders may include:

  • Impaired language development - characterized by a marked slowness or gaps in the development of language skills.
  • Aphasia - the loss of acquired language abilities, generally resulting from stroke or brain injury.