Modeled Reading- During modeled reading, the teacher models and introduces listening skills and comprehension strategies. Students at all levels of reading proficiency benefit from and enjoy listening to texts read aloud. Reading aloud demonstrates the connections between oral and written language and provides a model of fluent reading and critical thinking.
Shared Reading- Like modeled reading, shared reading takes place in a whole class setting. In shared reading, the teacher uses large format texts so that all students can clearly see the text. The teacher begins by reading the text aloud while students follow along. As students become more familiar with the text, they join in and share in the reading or simply track the text with their eyes. This enables each student to participate at his or her appropriate literacy level.
Interactive Reading- Interactive reading is an intermediary step between shared reading and small group strategic reading. The teacher releases more of the responsibility to the student by having students read in pairs. In this way, all students are given the opportunity to apply their knowledge of skills and strategies, with the support of a peer and without the intimidation of the whole class setting.
Modeled Writing- In modeled writing, teachers demonstrate what good writers do. During this process, teachers can use a mentor text or a piece of original writing to think aloud about composing- verbalizing key elements of their thought process for the group. Through modeling, teachers demonstrate how they make decisions about content, style, vocabulary, grammar, conventions, and so on.
Shared Writing- In shared writing, teachers and students work together to compose a text. During this stage of writing instruction, teachers engage students in the composing process through strategic prompting. Students should have the primary responsibility for composing in the shared writing, with the teacher acting as a scribe for the group as he or she shares ideas and strategies. In shared writing, students are encouraged to verbalize their thinking as they first work on prewriting through a graphic organizer and then consider how best to move those prewriting ideas onto the page.
Interactive Writing- Interactive writing is similar to shared writing in that teachers and students work collaboratively to compose a text. Instructionally, the teacher is still a key support for students as they work to shape their thoughts and ideas. During this stage, however, students take on more responsibility for writing and are invited to share in the physical act of writing.